# Probability

## Activities

Probability Washing Line

Hang out the washing on the line so that the probability words on the t-shirts are in order.

Pin Drop

Estimate the probability of a drawing pin landing point up from experimental data.

Likelihood

Arrange some statements in order according to the probability of them happening. Compare your opinion with thousands of others.

Probability

Basic probability questions in an online exercise.

Hi-Low Predictions

A version of the Play Your Cards Right TV show. Calculate the probabilities of cards being higher or lower.

Remainder Race

A game involving chance and choice requiring an ability to calculate the remainder when a two digit number is divided by a single digit number.

Superior

A game for two players who compete to make the largest possible number from randomly selected cards.

Snail Race

A race between 12 snails. Which snail is most likely to win? This is the students' version of the race simulation.

Great Expectation

An interactive online activity requiring logical thinking and a certain amount of luck to place the digits on the correct side of the inequality sign.

Frequency Trees

Use a frequency tree to show two or more events and the number of times they occurred.

Pascal's Triangle

Get to know this famous number pattern with some revealing learning activities

Tree Diagrams

Calculate the probability of independent and dependent combined events using tree diagrams.

The Maths of Gambling

Gambling is never a good idea and this activity might help you understand the mathematics involved.

Probability Formulae

Show that you know which formula (as given in the IB Formula Booklet) to use for each probability question. A drag and drop challenge.

## Investigations

Egg Box Investigation

In how many different ways can two eggs be arranged in an egg box?

Predictive Survey

An eight question survey collecting data for an amazing probability experiment.

Dice Investigation

Throw two dice and multiply the scores. Investigate the different products you can obtain. What about adding? What about using three dice?

Traffic Jams

How many ways can three cars be lined up in a traffic jam?

House Painting

The houses in Mathsland are all three storeys tall. Each storey is painted using one colour. How many ways can the houses be painted?

Beginning with One

Is it true that most numbers begin with the digit one? Think of numbers you see everyday and it is a surprising fact that so many of them begin with a one. Can you think why this is true?

## Videos

This is the main Transum help video on Probability.

Probability Video

A reminder of how to work out basic probability leading to simple combined events and expected values.

Calculator Dice Video

If you have no dice don't despair because most scientific calculators have a random number generating facility as can be seen in this short video.

Tree Diagrams Video

Tree diagrams can be really helpful showing combinations of two or more events in order to calculate probabilities.

GCSE Probability Part 1

Screencast of probability lesson for Intermediate GCSE Maths.

Statistical Significance

This video explains numeric and categorical data and helps you gain an understanding of when to apply a t-test or a chi-square test.

## Visual Aids

Dice and Spinners

Computer generated random numbers for games and probability experiments

Probability Words

A visual aid to highlight the vocabulary of probability and to debate the relationship between the given words.

Likelihood

Arrange some statements in order according to the probability of them happening. Compare your opinion with thousands of others.

Skunk

A game for the whole Maths class to play involving chance and choice.

Greater Than

The teacher has a set of six cards numbered 1 to 6. They are placed face down on the teachers desk so that the teacher can pick up one at random which students then have to fit onto a grid.

Snail Race Projectable

Twelve snails have a race based on the sum of two dice. This is the teachers' version of the race simulation.

Two Dice Possibility Space

An interactive visual aid showing the possibility space obtained when throwing two dice

Dice Bingo

Choose your own numbers for your bingo card. The caller uses two dice and adds the numbers together.

Normal Distribution Calculator

A customised online calculator for quickly finding areas under the normal distribution curve.

Significance

A slide presentation showing how to use the chi-squared test to measure significance.

A simulation of a Quincunx (Galton Board) which can be used to create the bell shaped curve of the normal distribution.

t-Test Revision

A slide presentation designed to revise the key aspects of Student's t-Test.

## Starters

Bus Stop
How many different ways can four people stand in line?

Coloured Sheep
What is the probability of picking a red sheep from the sheep in the field?

Ice Cream
How many different ice cream cones can be made by choosing two scoops from six flavours?

Pick From The Pot
The pot contains 10 counters which are being randomly removed and replaced. How many of each colour do you think are in the pot?

Tran's Hats
In how many different ways might Tran decide to wear his hats in one week?

30 items are currently in this category.

Teachers might find the complete Probability Topic List useful.

Probability is a measure of the weight of evidence, and is arrived at through reasoning and inference. In simple terms it is a measure or estimation of likelihood of the occurrence of an event. The word probability comes from the Latin word probabilitas which is a measure of the authority of a witness in a legal case. Some of the earlier mathematical studies of probability were motivated by the desire to be more profitable when gambling. Today however the practical uses of probability theory go far beyond gambling and are used in many aspects of modern life.

We believe that even adults can, in many cases, have a poor intuition regarding the effects of probability. These activities are designed to help pupils calculate but also get a 'feel' for the principles of probability.

For Students:

For All: