# Upper and Lower Bounds

## Determine the upper and lower bounds when rounding quantities used in calculations.

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This is level 2: quantities rounded to the nearest multiple. You can earn a trophy if you get at least 7 questions correct.

 1. The length of a pencil, p millimetres, is rounded to the nearest ten millimetres. The length is given as 110mm. What are the limits of accuracy? ≤ p < 2. A set of kitchen scales displays readings to the nearest ten grams. Find the upper and lower bounds in grams for a weight, w, displayed as 200g.200g g ≤ w < g 3. A digital thermometer measures temperatures (T) to the nearest two degrees. Find the range of possible temperatures if the display shows 62o.62o o ≤ T < o 4. A number, D, is rounded to the nearest ten. The result is 480. What are the limits of accuracy? ≤ D < 5. The weight of a box of bolts (w) is rounded to the nearest 50g. If the weight of the box is given as 2900g What are the limits of accuracy. g ≤ w < g 6. A number, F, is rounded to the nearest fifty. The result is 3400. What are the limits of accuracy? ≤ F < 7. The length of a fibre-optic cable (L) is rounded to the nearest fifty metres. If the length is given as 3850m find the range of values within which the actual length of the cable could be. m ≤ L < m 8. A number, H, is rounded to the nearest twenty. The result is 1700. What are the limits of accuracy? ≤ H < 9. A plumbing supplier sells pipes cut to size. The length (L millimetres) of the cut pipe is rounded to the nearest twenty millimetres in order to calculate the cost. If the length of a particular piece of pipe is given as 1820 find the range of values within which the actual length could be. ≤ L < 10. A number, J, is rounded to the nearest one hundred. The result is 11000. What are the limits of accuracy? ≤ J <
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This is Upper and Lower Bounds level 2. You can also try:
Level 1 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6

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## Description of Levels

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Level 1 - Numbers truncated or rounded up or down to a given multiple.

Level 2 - Quantities rounded to the nearest multiple.

Level 3 - Numbers rounded to a number of decimal places.

Level 4 - Discrete and continuous quantities rounded to a number of significant figures.

Level 5 - Mixed calculations involving upper and lower bounds.

Level 6 - Upper and lower bounds of algebraic expressions.

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## Extension

Students who are also studying Physics may want to investigate a topic called Propagation of Uncertainties that uses these formulas.

$$\text{If} \quad y= a \pm b \quad \text{then} \quad \Delta y = \Delta a + \Delta b$$ $$\text{If} \quad y= \frac{ab}{c} \quad \text{then} \quad \frac{\Delta y}{y} = \frac{\Delta a}{a} + \frac{\Delta b}{b} + \frac{\Delta c}{c}$$ $$\text{If} \quad y= a^n \quad \text{then} \quad \frac{\Delta y}{y} = \begin{vmatrix} n \frac{\Delta a}{a} \end{vmatrix}$$

The triangular symbols are the Greek letter delta and represent the errors or, more accurately, uncertainties.

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